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Race To Space
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Johannes Kepler inscribed a geometric solid construction of the universe, which was one of the mental steps he took in developing his laws of planetary motion.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

Born, Edward Charles Pickering, American astronomer, physicist (discovered the first spectroscopic binary stars with Carl Vogel)
ref: en.wikipedia.org

J. Palisa discovered asteroid #226 Weringia.

K. Lohnert discovered asteroid #639 Latona.

A meteorite with an estimated mass of 218 kg exploded over the town of Holbrook in Navajo County, Arizona, causing approximately 16,000 pieces of debris to rain down on the town.
ref: www.turnstone.ca

V. Albitzk discovered asteroid #1059 Mussorgskia.

H. E. Wood discovered asteroid #1305 Pongola.

Born, Roy Dubard Bridges Jr. (at Atlanta, Georgia, USA), Major General USAF, NASA astronaut (STS 51-F; 7d 22.75h in spaceflight), Director KSC 1997-2003, Director LRC 2003-2005
Astronaut Roy D. Bridges Jr., NASA photo (1985)Source: Wikipedia 384px-Roy_Bridges.jpg
Astronaut Roy D. Bridges Jr., NASA photo (1985)
Source: Wikipedia
ref: en.wikipedia.org

The first launch attempt from Cape Canaveral, Bumper No. 7, a German V-2 carrying a 320 kg Army-JPL Wac Corporal, was first scrubbed due to an aircraft emergency landing in the range; the second attempt had no lift when the main chamber did not ignite.
ref: www.spaceline.org

Mercury-Redstone (MR-4), with the manned Liberty Bell 7 capsule, was canceled within minutes of its launch because of adverse weather.

Mercury Redstone 4 (MR-4, commonly known as "Liberty Bell 7"), launched 21 July 1961, was the second flight of an American rocket with a human on board (Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom) and NASA's last suborbital manned flight. Its objectives were to: (1) familiarize man with a brief but complete space flight experience, including the lift-off, powered flight, weightless flight (approximately 5 minutes), re-entry, and landing; (2) evaluate man's ability to perform as a functional unit during space flight by demonstrating manual control of spacecraft attitude before, during, and after retrofire, and by use of voice communications during flight; (3) study man's physiological reactions during space flight; and, (4) qualify the explosively-actuated side egress hatch.

From lift-off to re-entry, operational sequences were similar to those of the first manned suborbital flight, and Grissom's flight experience was similar to Shepard's in that there was a five minute period of weightlessness. As with Shepard, no ill effects resulting from this condition were reported. Control tests of spacecraft attitude in manual mode were also successfully completed and demonstrated their ease of use. The main configuration differences from the MR-3 spacecraft was the addition of a large viewing window and an explosively actuated side hatch.

During the 15 minute, 37 second flight, the spacecraft attained a maximum velocity of 5140 mph (8270 km/hour) and an altitude of 117 miles (189 km). The capsule landed 300 miles (483 km) down range from Cape Canaveral.

After splash-down, the explosive hatch activated prematurely while Grissom was waiting for helicopter pickup. Grissom immediately exited the capsule, and remained in the water while a helicopter attempted to lift the rapidly sinking spacecraft, though his suit was filling up with water through open oxygen inlet lines. The attempt to raise the spacecraft failed, Liberty Bell 7 thus became the first spacecraft to sink at sea. Grissom was lifted to another helicopter after spending 3-4 minutes in the water, and transported to the aircraft carrier USS Randolph.

Despite the functional failure of the explosive hatch and the loss of the spacecraft, MR-4 was deemed a successful mission. Subsequent investigation into the premature firing of the egress hatch resulted in more testing, but no premature firings occurred. A mechanical hatch was designed to replace the explosive hatch, but was never implemented due to weight constraints. The incident did result in a change of procedures which required the firing safety pin to remain in place until after the helicopter hook was attached and tension applied to the recovery cable.

Liberty Bell 7 came to rest some 4.8 km below the surface, 830 km northwest of Grand Turk Island. It was finally raised from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean in 1999 after a number of expeditions. Two explorations of the area, in 1992 and 1993, were unsuccessful in locating the capsule. The next effort succeeded in locating the capsule on 2 May 1999, but the cable which linked the surface ship to the submersible (which would have towed the capsule to the surface) broke, resulting in the loss of the submersible, and temporarily dashing the hopes of those who intended to retrieve a piece of history. A final expedition, to recover both the submersible and the capsule, succeeded on 20 July 1999 in raising the capsule to the surface. Still attached to the capsule was the recovery line from the helicopter which tried to save it from sinking in 1961. Among the artifacts found inside were some of Grissom's gear, and some Mercury dimes which had been taken into space as souvenirs.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1962 10:53:00 GMT
NASA and the USAF launched X-15A Heating rates, Drag Test mission # 63 in which John McKay reached a maximum speed of 3474 mph (5591 kph, Mach 5.18) and a maximum altitude of 85,250 ft (25.984 km, 16.146 mi).
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1963 18:20:05 GMT
NASA and the USAF launched X-15A VO,UVP,IR,HS,Balloon Test/Technology/Ultraviolet Astronomy mission # 90 in which Joe Walker earned the first X-15 astronaut wings by the FAI definition (100+ km).

NASA and the US Air Force launched the X-15A VO,UVP,IR,HS,Balloon Test/Technology/Ultraviolet Astronomy mission from (X-15 flight # 90) above Edwards Air Force Base in California on 19 July 1963, in which Joe Walker reached a maximum speed of 3709 mph (5969 kph, Mach 5.50), and a maximum altitude of 347,800 ft (106.010 km, 65.872 mi), earning astronaut wings. An 31.5" (80 cm) diameter balloon was dragged on a 100' (30 meter) line during the flight to measure air density. This flight was the first X-15 astronaut wings flight by the FAI (Federation Aeronautique Internationale) definition (flight over the the Karman line at 100km altitude), and the fourth astronaut wings flight by the US Air Force definition - 50+ km altitude. It was also the first spaceflight of a spaceplane in aviation history.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

During the 49 minute standup EVA Gemini 10-1, astronaut Michael Collins photographed the Earth and stars.

Gemini 10 was the eighth manned Gemini Earth orbiting spacecraft, crewed by astronauts John Young and Michael Collins. Its primary purpose was to conduct rendezvous and docking tests with the Gemini Agena Target Vehicle-10 (GATV-10). The mission plan also included a rendezvous with the Gemini 8 Agena target, two extravehicular activity (EVA) excursions, and performing 15 scientific, technological, and medical experiments. The scientific experiments were related to (1) zodiacal light, synoptic terrain, and synoptic weather photography, (2) micrometeorite collections, (3) UV astronomical camera, (4) ion wake measurements, and (5) meteoroid erosion.

Gemini 10 was launched 18 July 1966 from Complex 19 and inserted into a 159.9 x 268.9 km (86 x 145 nautical mile) elliptical orbit. At orbit insertion, Gemini 10 was very close to the nominal 1600 km (1000 mile) slant range behind GATV-10, which had been launched into a nearly circular orbit about 100 minutes earlier. Rendezvous with GATV-10 was achieved on the 4th revolution at 10:43 pm EST, and docking was achieved at 11:13:03 pm EST. A large out-of-plane error in the initial orbit required the Gemini to use 60% of its fuel for the rendezvous, over twice the planned amount. As a result, most of the mission plan was revised. To conserve fuel, Gemini 10 remained docked to GATV-10 for the next 39 hours, and used the GATV propulsion system for maneuvers; the planned docking practice runs were cancelled.

A 14-second burn of the GATV-10 primary propulsion system was used to raise the dual spacecraft apogee to 764 km. While the spacecraft were docked, a bending mode test was conducted to study spacecraft dynamics, and other experiments were performed. Another burn of GATV-10 at 3:58 pm EST on 19 July brought the spacecraft into the same orbit as GATV-8, which had been launched on 16 March for the Gemini 8 mission. At 4:44 pm EST, the Gemini cabin pressure was reduced to zero, and the hatch was opened. Collins stood up in his seat 3 minutes later and began photographing stellar UV radiation. Partway into the standup EVA, Young and Collins began to experience severe eye irritation from an unidentified source, and Young ordered termination of the EVA. Collins sat down and the hatch was closed at 5:33 pm EST, and a high oxygen flow rate was used to purge the environmental control system.

Gemini 10 separated from GATV-10 at 2:00 pm EST on 20 July. A series of manuevers using its own thrusters brought Gemini 10 within about 15 meters of GATV-8. At 6:01 pm EST (48:41 ground elapsed time), the cabin was evacuated and the hatch opened for Collins to begin his second EVA. Collins left the spacecraft 6 minutes later, attached to an umbilical cord, and travelled to the GATV-8. Despite difficulties due to lack of handholds on the target vehicle (Collins lost his grip the first time, and tumbled head over heels at end of the umbilical around Gemini), Collins removed the fairing and retrieved the micrometeoroid detection equipment (on the second try). During the EVA, he also lost his camera, and retrieved the micrometeorite experiment mounted on the Gemini 10 spacecraft, but the latter apparently floated out of the hatch and was lost when Collins reentered the capsule. The EVA was limited to 25 minutes of outside activity due to lack of fuel. Collins reentered the capsule at 6:32 pm EST and the hatch was closed at 6:40. The hatch was reopened again at 7:53 pm EST to jettison 12 items before reentry. After about three hours of station keeping, Gemini 10 moved away from GATV-8. At 8:59 pm EST, the crew performed an anomaly adjust maneuver to minimize reentry dispersions resulting from the retrofire maneuver.

Retrorocket ignition took place during the 43rd revolution on 21 July at 3:30:50 pm EST, and splashdown occurred at 4:07:05 pm EST in the western Atlantic at 26.74 N, 71.95 W, 875 km east of Cape Kennedy and 6.3 km from the target point. The crew was picked up by helicopter and taken to the recovery ship USS Guadalcanal at 4:34 pm EST, and the spacecraft was aboard at 5:01 pm. Total mission elapsed time was 70:46:39. Of the primary objectives, only the docking practice was not accomplished due to lack of fuel, although the fuel budget also resulted in small revisions in some of the other objectives. The first rendezvous and docking maneuvers were successfully accomplished. All experiments obtained data except for the Gemini 10 micrometeorite collector, which was lost by floating out of the spacecraft. The landmark contrast measurement experiment was deleted due to lack of fuel. Gemini 10 demonstrated the ability of an astronaut to travel to another spacecraft and back, and the use of powered, fueled satellite to provide propulsion for a docked spacecraft.
ref: en.wikipedia.org
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1967 14:19:00 GMT
NASA launched the AIMP-E (Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform, Explorer 35) Moon orbiting space physics mission.
Explorer 35 during assembly and testing, NASA photo Source: NSSDCA Master Catalog explorer_35.jpg
Explorer 35 during assembly and testing, NASA photo
Source: NSSDCA Master Catalog

The Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite, officially designated Explorer 35, was a spin-stabilized spacecraft instrumented for studies of the interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, energetic particles, and solar X rays at Lunar distances - studying the Earth's magnetic tail. Its spin axis direction was nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, with a spin rate of 25.6 rpm. It was launched into an elliptical Lunar orbit on 19 July 1967, with primary objectives of investigating interplanetary plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field out to and at Lunar distances, in either a geocentric orbit or a captured Lunar orbit. In geocentric orbit, the apogee was near or beyond Lunar distance. In Lunar orbit, additional objectives included obtaining data on dust distribution, and the Lunar gravitational field, ionosphere, magnetic field, and radiation environment. AIMP-E also studied spatial and temporal relationships of geophysical and interplanetary phenomena simultaneously being studied by several other NASA satellites. The investigation in the vicinity of the Moon provided for measurements of the characteristics of the interplanetary dust distribution, solar and galactic cosmic rays, as well as a study of the magnetohydrodynamic wake of the Earth in the interplanetary medium at Lunar distances. Mission objectives were achieved. After successful operation for 6 years, the spacecraft was turned off on 24 June 1973.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1969 17:21:50 GMT
NASA's Apollo 11 entered Lunar orbit through a retrograde firing of the main engine for 357.5 seconds while the spacecraft was behind the Moon and out of contact with Earth.

Apollo 11 (AS-506) was the first mission in which humans walked on the Lunar surface and returned to Earth: On 20 July 1969, two astronauts (Apollo 11 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and "Eagle" Lunar Module (LM) pilot Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr.) landed in Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility) on the Moon in the LM while the "Columbia" Command and Service Module (CSM), with CM pilot Michael Collins, continued in Lunar orbit. During their stay on the Moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs, and collected Lunar samples. The LM took off from the Moon on 21 July and the astronauts returned to Earth on 24 July.

Apollo 11, the fifth manned Apollo mission, was launched into Earth orbit on 16 July 1969 from pad 39A of the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on a Saturn V. After 1.5 Earth orbits, the S-IVB stage was re-ignited at 16:16:16 UT for the 5 minute 48 second translunar injection burn, putting the spacecraft on course for the Moon. The CSM separated from the S-IVB stage containing the LM 33 minutes later, turned around and docked with the LM at 16:56:03 UT. About an hour and 15 minutes later, the S-IVB stage was injected into heliocentric orbit. On 17 July, a three second mid-course correction burn of the main engine was performed. During the translunar coast, at 4:40 pm EDT on 18 July, the crew began a 96 minute color television transmission of the CSM and LM interiors, CSM exterior, the Earth, probe and drogue removal, spacecraft tunnel hatch opening, food preparation, and LM housekeeping. Lunar orbit insertion was achieved on 19 July at 17:21:50 UT by a retrograde firing of the main engine for 357.5 seconds while the spacecraft was behind the Moon and out of contact with Earth, and a 17 second burn later circularized the orbit. During the second Lunar orbit, a live color telecast of the Lunar surface was made. At 13:50 UT on 20 July, Armstrong and Aldrin entered the LM for the final systems checkout. At 18:11:53, the LM and CSM separated, and after a visual inspection by Collins, the LM descent engine was fired for 30 seconds at 19:08 UT, putting the craft into a descent orbit with a closest approach 14.5 km above the Moon's surface. At 20:05, the LM descent engine was fired for 756.3 seconds, and the final descent to the Lunar surface began.

The first Apollo landing site, in the southern Sea of Tranquility about 20 km (12 mi) southwest of the crater Sabine D, was selected in part because it had been characterized as relatively flat and smooth by the automated Ranger 8 and Surveyor 5 landers, as well as by Lunar Orbiter mapping spacecraft, and therefore unlikely to present major landing or extra-vehicular activity (EVA) challenges.

Armstrong and Aldrin found they were "running long" - Eagle was 4 seconds further along its descent trajectory than planned, and would land miles west of the intended site. The LM navigation and guidance computer reported several "program alarms" as it guided the LM's descent which tore the crew's attention from the scene outside as the descent proceeded. A young controller named Steve Bales at NASA's Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas, was able to tell the flight director it was safe to continue the descent in spite of the alarms (for which he later received the Medal of Freedom). Once they were able to return their attention to the view outside, the astronauts saw that their computer was guiding them toward a landing site full of large rocks scattered around a large crater. Armstrong took manual control of the Lunar module, and guided it to a landing with less than 30 seconds worth of fuel left. The program alarms were "executive overflows" indicating the computer could not finish its work in the time allotted. The cause was later determined to be the LM rendezvous radar was left on during the descent, causing the computer to spend unplanned time servicing the unused radar.

The LM landed at 20:17:40 UT (4:17:40 pm EDT) in Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility), with Armstrong reporting, "Houston, Tranquility Base here - the Eagle has landed." Armstrong stepped onto the Lunar surface at 02:56:15 UT on 21 July (10:56:15 pm July 20 EDT) stating, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Aldrin followed him onto the Lunar surface 19 minutes later. The astronauts unveiled a plaque mounted on a strut of the LM and read to a worldwide TV audience, "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot on the Moon July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." After raising the American flag and talking to President Nixon by radiotelephone, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) and other instruments, took photographs, and collected 21.7 kg of Lunar rock and soil, traversing a total distance of about 250 meters. Despite some technical and weather difficulties, ghostly black and white images of the entire first Lunar EVA were received, primarily through the radio telescope station at the Parkes Observatory in Australia, and were immediately broadcast live to at least 600 million people on Earth. The EVA ended at 5:11:13 UT when Armstrong and Aldrin returned to the LM and closed the hatch.

The LM lifted off from the Moon at 17:54:01 UT on 21 July after 21 hours, 36 minutes on the Lunar surface. After docking with the CSM at 21:34:00 UT, the crew, with the Lunar samples and film, transferred to the CSM. The LM was jettisoned into Lunar orbit at 00:01:01 UT on 22 July. The crew then rested and prepared for the return trip to Earth. Transearth injection began at 04:54:42 UT on 22 July with a 2.5 minute firing of the CSM main engine. Following a midcourse correction at 21:01 UT, an 18 minute color television transmission was made, in which the astronauts demonstrated the weightlessness of food and water, and showed shots of the Earth and Moon. The CM separated from the SM at 16:21:13 UT on 24 July as the spacecraft neared Earth on its return. Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 24 July 1969 at 16:50:35 UT (12:50:35 pm EDT) after a mission elapsed time of 195 hours, 18 minutes, 35 seconds. Splashdown took place at 13 deg 19 min N, 169 deg 9 min W, 400 miles SSW of Wake Island and 24 km (15 mi) from the recovery ship USS Hornet. Following decontamination procedures at the splashdown point, the astronauts were carried by helicopter to the Hornet where they entered a mobile quarantine facility to begin a period of observation under strict quarantine conditions. The CM was also recovered and removed to the quarantine facility. Sample containers and film were flown to Houston.

All primary mission objectives and all detailed test objectives of Apollo 11 were met, and all crew members remained in good health. The performance of the spacecraft was excellent throughout the mission. The primary mission goal of landing astronauts on the Moon and returning them to Earth was achieved. Armstrong was a civilian on his second spaceflight (he'd previously flown on Gemini 8), Aldrin was a USAF Colonel on his second spaceflight (Gemini 12), Collins was a USAF Lt. Colonel also on his second flight (Gemini 10). The backup crew for the mission was Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and William Anders. The Apollo 11 Command Module is on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.

Apollo 11's Moon landing is the basis of selecting 20 July - Moon Day - as one of the L5 National Holidays.

The Apollo program included a large number of uncrewed test missions and 12 crewed missions: three Earth orbiting missions (Apollo 7, 9 and Apollo-Soyuz), two Lunar orbiting missions (Apollo 8 and 10), a Lunar swingby (Apollo 13), and six Moon landing missions (Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17). Two astronauts from each of the six landing missions walked on the Moon (Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Charles Conrad, Alan Bean, Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell, David Scott, James Irwin, John Young, Charles Duke, Gene Cernan, and Harrison Schmitt), the only humans to date (2022) to have set foot on another planetary body beyond Earth.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

B. Burnasheva discovered asteroid #2259 Sofievka.

Felix Aguilar Observatory discovered asteroid #3118.

1974 12:21:00 GMT
USSR Soyuz 14 landed within 2 km of its aim point 140 km SE of Dzkezkazgan. All objectives were successfully completed.

Soyuz 14 was launched 3 July 1974 as a test of Salyut's engineering systems and energy supply. On 4 July, Soyuz 14 docked with the Salyut 3 space station after 15 revolutions of the Earth. The planned experimental program included manned military reconnaissance of the Earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. Soyuz 14 landed on 19 July 1974 following 15 days, 17 hours docked at Salyut 3. After the crew's return to Earth, research continued in development of the on-board systems and the principles of remote control of such a station.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

N. Chernykh discovered asteroid #2228 Soyuz-Apollo.

1983 15:21:00 GMT
USSR launched Molniya 1-58 from Baikonur for operation of the long range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR, and transmission of USSR Central Television programs to stations in the Orbita network.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

US Vice President George H. W. Bush announced that New Hampshire teacher Christa McAuliffe would become the first public school teacher to ride aboard the Space Shuttle.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1985 13:05:08 GMT
USSR launched Cosmos 1669 from Baikonur to the Salyut 7 orbital station, given a Cosmos designation instead of a Progress one because control was lost early in mission (although it was regained later).

Cosmos 1669 was launched to the Salyut 7 orbital station on 19 July 1985. It was a Progress vehicle, but was given a Cosmos designation instead of Progress because control was lost early in the mission (but regained later). The flight carried fresh supplies and various cargoes to Salyut 7. On departure, it briefly undocked and redocked to verify reliability of the docking system. Cosmos 1669 docked with Salyut 7 on 21 Jul 1985 15:05:00 GMT, undocked on 28 Aug 1985 21:50:00 GMT, and was destroyed in reentry on 30 Aug 1985 01:20:00 GMT. Total free-flight time: 3.23 days. Total docked time: 38.28 days.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

During the 5h 28m Mir EO-9-4 EVA, Mir cosmonauts Anatoly Artsebarsky and Sergei Krikalev began assembly of the Sofora girder.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

During the 3h 8m Mir EO-19-2 EVA, Mir cosmonauts Anatoli Soloviyov and Nikolai Budarin retrieved the TREK detector. The cosmonauts did not accomplish all of their tasks and the EVA was shorter than planned because of suit problems.
ref: www.spacefacts.de

Died (cancer), Vladimir Vladimirovich Vasyutin (at Moscow, Russian Federation), Lt General Russian AF, Soviet cosmonaut (Salyut 7 EO-4-2, nearly 64d 22h in spaceflight)
ref: www.spacefacts.de

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